In this book Scott Klingsmith examines the factors which were influential in the rise of four missionary sending movements in East-Central Europe after the revolutions of 1989. These movements, located in Hungary, Poland, and Romania, ranged in scope from a single local church, to a specific missions agency, to national cooperative efforts between churches and agencies. Using a system of systems approach as an analytical framework, Klingsmith explores spiritual, social and cultural factors, as well as the interactions between systems. He also traces changes occurring within each system. Following a description of the individual cases, a cross-case analysis is made, seeking those factors which are common to all the cases, and contrasts between different cases. While the cases have many features in common, it is important to not look at their development and the region monolithically. Important distinctions exist between the level of spiritual life, backing by denominational leaders, theological understanding of missions, the role of theological education, and a variety of other factors.